The Role of Regulation in Nuclear Plant Safety

We’re reviewing momentous events in nuclear history and commenting on the role of regulation in nuclear plant safety. The objective is to better understand under-regulation and over-regulation, and to better define “Goldilocks” regulation—regulation that is neither too lax nor too onerous, but just right.


Fatal Accident at Arkansas Nuclear One

, former director, Nuclear Safety Project

 Role of Regulation in Nuclear Plant Safety #11

The Fatal Accident

As described in Fission Stories #139 and illustrated in Fission Stories #181, a temporary crane removing a component weighing 525 tons on March 31, 2013, in the turbine building of the Unit 1 reactor at Arkansas Nuclear One near Russellville, AR collapsed. The dropped load struck the turbine building floor with considerable force, then rolled and fell through an opening to cause further damage on a lower floor. One worker was killed and eight others injured by the accident. Read more >

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Breaking Containment at Crystal River 3

, former director, Nuclear Safety Project

Role of Regulation in Nuclear Plant Safety #10

The Crystal River 3 pressurized water reactor in Florida was shut down in September 2009 for refueling. During the refueling outage, the original steam generators were scheduled to be replaced. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was reviewing the owner’s application to extend the reactor operating license for another 20 years. The replacement steam generators would enable the reactor to operate through the end of its current operating license period as well as to the end of a renewed license.

But those plans changed drastically when the process of cutting an opening in the concrete containment wall for the steam generator replacement inflicted extensive damage to the concrete. When the cost of fixing the broken containment rose too high, the owner opted to permanently shut down the facility before its original operating license expired. Read more >

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Naughty and Nice Nuclear Nappers

, former director, Nuclear Safety Project

Role of Regulation in Nuclear Plant Safety 9

The Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station in Delta, Pennsylvania is known for its tireless workers. They stop working long before getting tired and nap while on duty. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) treated the nuclear nappers as naughty in 1987 but as nice in 2007. The reason for such disparate handling of the same problem isn’t apparent. Maybe if I took a nap it would come to me in a dream. Read more >

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Anticipated Transient Without Scram

, former director, Nuclear Safety Project

Role of Regulation in Nuclear Plant Safety #8

In the mid-1960s, the nuclear safety regulator raised concerns about the reliability of the system relied upon to protect the public in event of a reactor transient. If that system failed—or failed again since it had already failed—the reactor core could be severely damaged (as it had during that prior failure.) The nuclear industry resisted the regulator’s efforts to manage this risk. Throughout the 1970s, the regulator and industry pursued non-productive exchange of study and counter-study. Then the system failed again—three times—in June 1980 and twice more in February 1983. The regulator adopted the Anticipated Transient Without Scram rule in June 1984. But it was too little, too late—the hazard it purported to manage had already been alleviated via other means. Read more >

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Pipe Rupture at Surry Nuclear Plant Kills Four Workers

, former director, Nuclear Safety Project

Role of Regulation in Nuclear Plant Safety #7

Both reactors at the Surry nuclear plant near Williamsburg, Virginia operated at full power on December 9, 1986. Around 2:20 pm, a valve in a pipe between a steam generator on Unit 2 and its turbine inadvertently closed due to a re-assembly error following recent maintenance. The valve’s closure resulted in a low water level inside the steam generator, which triggered the automatic shutdown of the Unit 2 reactor. The rapid change from steady state operation at full power to zero power caused a transient as systems adjusted to the significantly changed conditions. About 40 seconds after the reactor trip, a bend in the pipe going to one of the feedwater pumps ruptured. The pressurized water jetting from the broken pipe flashed to steam. Several workers in the vicinity were seriously burned by the hot vapor. Over the next week, four workers died from the injuries. Read more >

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